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Tania Leal Height, Weight, Net Worth, Age, Birthday, Wikipedia, Who, Nationality, Biography? Top 109 Best Answers

Are you looking for an answer to the topic “Tania Leal Height, Weight, Net Worth, Age, Birthday, Wikipedia, Who, Nationality, Biography“? We answer all your questions at the website Abcchamber in category: Abcchamber.org/tips. You will find the answer right below.

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Emmy Award-winning meteorologist Tania Leal is no longer bizarre to the people of Los Angeles.

Combined with her sol talent for illustration and comprehensive information on climate, she became an ambassador for the American Meteorologist Society.Abcchamber.org

During her time in the fields, she strove to share the future climate and desire to serve her region.

Her bilingualism also helps her reach a wer audience.

Tania Leal is a Mexican meteorologist. She’s around 30.

She initially wanted to be a legal counsel when she received associate certification from the University of Texas.

Whatever the case, she later transfers to Mississippi State University for a degree in broadcasting and operational meteorology.

Tania Leal is happily tied to her significant other, Axel Gracias. He jumps in as a land financier.

The couple is helplessly in love with each other. She constantly sings his gestures of appreciation on her socials.

The couple flies to colorful locations for their getaways. However, a simple day by the sea is similarly unusual as long as they have each other.

The Simpsons handyman added to the 6th wedding commemoration air by representing them on their big day.

Also, the goofy portrayal of two or three shows Axel holding Tania in his arms while sitting in the scandalous Simpsons living room.

Tania Leal is the Hispanic Wardens’ little girl. Whatever the case, she is of American ethnicity.

Initially she was born and raised in Mexico but moved to the United States in the 2010s. After being tied to her companion, she became an American.

Of course, her people should be very indivual to her, as she does admirably in her calling.

Tania Leal’s compensation is still under review. The average annual salary for a weather forecaster is around $55,000.

According to her LinkedIn, she began his career while working for Televisa in Mexico. After working as a climate forecaster for a long time, she found employment elsewhere in 2013.

In 2015 she joined Ktlm-Tv Telemundo as a full-time meteorologist. The work suited her as she had worked there for a long time.

She was transferred to another department of a similar channel and worked there for another three years.

She currently works as a weather forecaster for NBC Universal Media.

Account: Instagram @tanialealtv


Elin Hedstrom Height, Weight, Net Worth, Age, Birthday, Wikipedia, Who, Nationality

Elin Hedstrom Height, Weight, Net Worth, Age, Birthday, Wikipedia, Who, Nationality
Elin Hedstrom Height, Weight, Net Worth, Age, Birthday, Wikipedia, Who, Nationality

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Elin Hedstrom Height, Weight, Net Worth, Age, Birthday, Wikipedia, Who, Nationality
Elin Hedstrom Height, Weight, Net Worth, Age, Birthday, Wikipedia, Who, Nationality

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Leandral Leal Age, Height, Net Worth, Movies, Family …

Leandral Leal Age, Height, Weight, Bra Size, Body Stats, Net Worth, Career, Movies, Education, Family, Boyfriends, Husband, Ks, Children & Biography.

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Source: celebsupdate.com

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Tania L. Leal – Wikidata

Tania Leal; Tania L Leal. In more languages. Spanish. Tania L. Leal. No description defined. Traditional Chinese. No label defined.

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Date Published: 5/6/2021

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Claudia Gerini – Net Worth, Age, Height, Bio, Birthday, Wiki!

Explore Claudia Gerini net worth, age, height, bio, birthday, wiki, salary, 2021! Famous Claudia Gerini was born on December 18, 1971 in Italy.

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Scott Eastwood Height, Weight, Age, Wiki, Biography, Net …

Scott Eastwood Wiki and Personal details ; Nationality, American ; GirlFriend, Maddie Serviente ; Affairs, Sara Leal, Jana Kramer Brittany Brousseau Jewel Brangman.

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Net Worth, Age, Height, Bio, Birthday, Wiki!

Claudia Gerini Net worth, Birthday, Age, Height, Weight, Wiki, Fact 2021-22! In this article we will find out how old Claudia Gerini is. Who is Claudia Gerini with now and how much money does Claudia Gerini have?

BRIEF PROFILE Parents Tania Cecere, Antonio Gerini Father unavailable Mother unavailable Siblings Romina Gerini Spouse Alessandro Enginoli Children Linda Zampaglione, Rosa Enginoli

Claudia Gerini Biography Claudia Gerini is a famous celebrity who was born on December 18, 1971 in Italy. Film actress who played Claudia Procles in Passion of the Christ in 2004. In 2017, she also played Donna Maria in Love and Bullets. She has more than 320,000 followers on her Geriniclaudia Instagram account. According to astrologers, Claudia Gerini’s zodiac sign is Sagittarius. She was married to Alessandro Enginoli from 2002 to 2004. She has been with Federico Zampaglione since 2005.

Ethnicity, Religion and Political Views Many people would like to know what the ethnicity, nationality, ancestry and race of Claudia Gerini is. let’s check it out! According to public source, IMDb and Wikipedia, Claudia Gerini’s ethnicity is unknown. We will update Claudia Gerini’s religious and political views in this article. Please check the item again after a few days.

Claudia Gerini Net Worth Claudia is one of the richest celebrities and is included in the list of most popular celebrities. According to our analysis, Wikipedia, Forbes & Business Insider, Claudia Gerini’s net worth is around $1.5 million.

Claudia Gerini Net worth and Salary Net worth $1.5 million Salary Under Verification Income Source Celebrity Cars N/A House Living in own house.

She grew up with classical studies and dance training. Her first on-screen role was as “Mucci” Petruzzelli in 1987’s Roba da ricchi.

Claudia Gerini Height Claudia Gerini’s Height 5ft 6in Claudia Unknown Weight & Measurements will be updated soon.

Claudia Gerini Height & Stats Height 5 feet 6 inches Weight not known Body measurements are verified Eye color not available Hair color not available Foot/Shoe size not available

Who is Claudia Gerini with? According to our records, Claudia Gerini was married to Alessandro Enginoli. Claudia Gerini has not been with anyone since May 2022. Relationship Records: We have no records of Claudia Gerini’s previous relationships. You can help us create the dating records for Claudia Gerini! : We have no records of Claudia Gerini. You can help us create the dating records for Claudia Gerini!

Facts & Interesting Facts Claudia on the list of the most popular celebrities. Also included in elite list of Italian-born famous people. Claudia Gerini celebrates her birthday on December 18 every year.

You can read the full biography about Claudia Gerini from Wikipedia

She was filming in Rome as part of Netflix’s first Italian original series, Suburra.

Scott Eastwood Height, Weight, Age, Wiki, Biography, Net Worth, Unknown Facts

Around

Scott Eastwood is a talented and handsome American Hollywood actor and model. He was part of many Hollywood films.

He first appeared in the 2006 film Flags of Our Fathers. In this film he played the role of Roberto Lundsford. Scott has played significant roles in many major Hollywood films such as The Fate of the Furious, Suicide Squad, Fury and many more.

Scott changed his last name to Reeves early in his career. By changing his surname, he wanted to avoid the label of nepotism. There’s another actor named Scott Reeves in Industry, so after a while he re-admitted using Eastwood as his last name.

Even after being the son of a prominent Hollywood director, he has auditioned for every film. His father turned him down for the 2015 film American Sniper, which his father also directed.

Scott Eastwood Wiki and personal information

Full Name Scott Clint Eastwood Nickname Scott Gender Male Instagram @ScottEastwood Date of Birth (Birthday) March 21, 1986 Age (as of 2022) 35 years (as of 2022) Birthplace Monterey, California, USA Zodiac Sign Aries Hobbies/Interests Bicycling, painting Profession Actor, model famous for his acting, modeling school Carmel High School. College Loyola Marymount University Education Graduate Father’s Name Clint Eastwood Mother’s Name Jacelyn Reeves Siblings Kathryn Reeves

Francesca Eastwood (half sister)

Morgan Eastwood (half sister)

Alison Eastwood (half sister)

Kyle Eastwood (Half Brother) Family Unknown Friends Names Unknown Religion Christianity Hometown Monterey, California, USA Current Address USA Nationality American Girlfriend Maddie Serviente Affair Sara Leal,

Jan Kramer

Brittany Brousseau

Jewel Brangman Marital Status Single Wife No Children No Hobbies Bicycling, Painting Awards – Net worth $12 million Monthly income $1 million

Scott is an actor and model by trade. His father is also a famous actor, director, politician and musician. Scott is handsome and has a huge following.

Scott Eastwood’s Birthday Age and Biography

Scott was born on March 21, 1986. The place where Scott was born is the Community Hospital of the Monterey Peninsula in Monterey, California. Even at the age of 35, he looks very handsome and hot.

His hometown is in Monterey, California, USA. Scott Eastwood’s nationality is American. He is just 35 years old and has become one of Hollywood’s most famous actors.

Scott Eastwood’s appearance

Height 5 feet 11 inches (1.80 m) Weight 83 kg (as of 2020) Chest 43 inches Waist 33 inches Biceps 16 inches Eye Color Blue Hair Color Light Brown Body Type Athletic Sexual Orientation Straight

Scott is only 35 years old, very fit looking and one of the hottest actors in Hollywood. Any girl can fall in love with him just by seeing him once. The color of Scott’s eyes is blue while his hair color is light brown and it’s the perfect combination.

Scott’s face is whitish in color and his height is 43-33-16 inches. Scott’s weight is only 83 kg and he looks very slim. This Hollywood actor’s height is 5ft 11in and he is quite short.

Scott Eastwood family and relatives

Scott Eastwood’s father is actor and director Clint Eastwood and her mother is flight attendant Jacelyn Reeves.

Scott’s sister’s name is Kathryn Reeves, who was born two years after him in 1988. He has three half-sisters, Alison Eastwood, Francesca Eastwood and Morgan Eastwood, and a half-brother, Kyle Eastwood.

Scott’s half-brother, Kyle Eastwood, is an actor and musician by trade, while his older half-sister is Alison Eastwood, an American actress, director, producer, model, and fashion designer who is very hot looking.

Scott’s younger half-sister Francesca Eastwood is an actress, model, television personality and socialite by trade, while her other half-sister Alison Eastwood is an actress and producer by trade.

Scott Eastwood Education/Qualification

After returning from Hawaii, Scott Eastwood attended and graduated from Carmel High School in Carmel, California.

After graduating from high school, he went to Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, where he graduated in 2008 with a degree in communications.

Scott Eastwood’s career

film career

Scott began his career by having Scott change his last name to Reeves to avoid the label of nepotism. Even after being the son of a very famous director and actor, he was not accepted for the role in his father’s hit 2015 film American Sniper.

He made his big screen debut in the 2006 American war film Flags of Our Fathers opposite Ryan Phillippe. His father directed the film. After playing a small role in the film, he landed a major role in the 2009 film Invictus.

Year. Film 2006 Flags of Our Fathers 2007 An American Crime 2008 Player 5150 2009 Shannon’s Rainbow 2009 Invictus 2011 Enter Nowhere 2012 The Forger 2012 Trouble with the Curve 2013 Texas Chainsaw 3D 2014 Fury 2014 The Perfect Wave 2014 Dawn Patrol 2015 The Longest Rides 05 Plain 2015 Mercury Diablo 2016 Snowden 2016 Suicide Squad 2017 Walk of Fame 2017 The Fate of the Furious 2017 Live by Night 2017 Overdrive 2018 Pacific Rim: Uprising 2019 The Outpost

In April 2010, Scott landed his first starring role in the psychological thriller Enter Nowhere opposite Sara Paxton, and later had a supporting role in David Ayer’s 2014 critically acclaimed and globally acclaimed film Fury.

In 2016, Scott starred as Lieutenant GQ Edwards in the hit DC Comics film Suicide Squad alongside the likes of Will Smith, Jared Leto and Margot Robbie. In the same year he appeared biographically in 2016

Thriller “Snowden” alongside actors like Joseph Gordon-Levitt Shailene Woodley.

In 2017, he starred in the role of Little Nobody in the film Fate of the Furious alongside the likes of Vin Diesel and Dwayne Johanson, and went on to star in the action thriller Overdrive, which was filmed in cities such as Paris and Marseille.

television career

Scott Eastwood’s television career is incisive, he has been part of only two series in which he played the same role in both films. In 2013 he was part of the series Chicago Fire in which he played the role of officer Jim Barnes and appeared in 2 episodes of it. In 2014 he reappeared as Jim Barnes in Chicago PD episode Stepping Stone.

Scott Eastwood Wife/Girlfriend and Affairs

Scott’s longtime girlfriend, Jewel Brangman, died in a car accident in September 2014. He made it public in 2016, two years after the accident. After that he dated Sara Leal, Jana Kramer, Brittany Brousseau.

Scott and her current girlfriend, Maddie Serviette, recently vacationed in Italy. They click photos, laugh and hold hands and enjoy their time. They were previously spotted on a romantic beach date in Australia in 2016.

Scott Eastwood Contact Information –

Phone number coming soon whatsaap number – email – website – home address – manager name – manager mobile number –

Scott Eastwood social media account

Scott has a good following on social media. The reason for his fan base is that he is an excellent actor.

He loves interacting with his fans and has posted many things on Instagram frequently. He is not as active on Twitter as he is on Instagram, his last tweet on March 4, 2020. He has around 3.6 million followers on Instagram and 203,000 followers on Twitter.

Scott Eastwood Net Worth and Income

Scott’s net worth is around $12 million as of 2020. He makes most of his money from acting and modeling.

As per Scott’s progress, there is no doubt that his net worth will be higher in the coming days.

ALSO READ Caroline Zalog Age, Biography, Wiki, Insta, Boyfriend, Height

Untold Facts by Scott Eastwood

He once considered becoming a firefighter if acting didn’t work out for him.

He is of English and smaller amounts of German, Irish, Scottish and Dutch descent.

He is also an entrepreneur

he works hard

He was also the model for Davidoff’s Cool Water fragrance.

Frequently asked questions about Scott Eastwood

1) Where does Scott Eastwood live now?

Scott now resides in San Diego.

2) Who is Scott Eastwood’s mom and dad meeting?

Scott Eastwood’s mother, Jacelyn Reeves, and father, Clint Eastwood, met while she was working as a flight attendant in Hawaii.

3) Did Scott Eastwood ride a bull?

Scott Eastwood rode a bull in The Longest Ride.

4) What did Scott Eastwood do before acting?

Even after being the son of a famous Hollywood actor and director, he worked as a bartender, construction worker, and parking attendant before beginning his acting career.

So: Like Loading…

Wikipedia

Capital and largest city of Cuba

Capital in La Habana, Cuba

Havana ( ; Spanish: La Habana [la aˈβana] ()) is the capital and largest city of Cuba. Havana, the heart of the province of La Habana, is the country’s most important port and leading commercial center.[4] The city has a population of 2.1 million people[5][4] and covers a total area of ​​781.58 km2 (301.77 sq mi) – making it the largest city by area, the most populous city and the fourth largest metropolitan area in the United States makes the Caribbean region.[5][6]

Founded by the Spanish in the 16th century, the city of Havana served as a springboard for the Spanish conquest of the Americas and became a stopping point for Spanish galleons returning to Spain. Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of capital in 1592.[7] Both walls and forts were built to protect the city.[8]

The sinking of the US battleship Maine in Havana harbor in 1898 was the proximate cause of the Spanish-American War.[9] The city is the center of the Cuban government and is home to various ministries, corporate headquarters and over 100 diplomatic missions.[10] The governor is Reinaldo García Zapata of the Communist Party of Cuba (PCC).[11][12] In 2009, the city/province had the third highest income in the country.[13]

Contemporary Havana can essentially be described as three cities in one: Old Havana, Vedado, and the newer suburban areas. The city extends mainly west and south from the bay, which is entered through a narrow bay and divides into three main ports: Marimelena, Guanabacoa and Antares. The Almendares River crosses the city from south to north and joins the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay.

The city attracts over one million tourists annually;[15] the official census for Havana reports that the city was visited by 1,176,627 international tourists in 2010,[15] a 20% increase over 2005. Old Havana was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982.[16] The city is also known for its history, culture, architecture and monuments.[17] As is typical for Cuba, Havana experiences a tropical climate.[18]

Etymology[ edit ]

In 1514, Diego Veláquez founded the city of San Cristóbal de la Habana, which means “Saint Christopher of Habana” and later became the capital of Cuba. Habana was the name of the local ethnic group. It is not clear where the name came from, but it has been suggested that the name comes from Habaguanex, who was a chief of the Native American tribe. Its name is Taíno, which is an Arawakan language, but nothing else is known. When Habana was adapted into English, the ⟨b⟩ was changed to a ⟨v⟩ due to a linguistic phenomenon known as Betacism, which is a confusion between the voiced bilabial stop and the voiced labiodental fricative, the found in most modern Spanish dialects. The use of the word Havana in literature understandably peaked during the Spanish-American War, but it is still held in high esteem because it represents a type of cigar, a color, and a type of rabbit, as well as the city.[19]

Havana is still the predominant name in English-language dictionaries in relation to the capital of Cuba.

coat of arms [edit]

Coat of arms of La Habana

The coat of arms of Havana, Cuba consists of three castles representing the three castles that defended the city – namely Fuerza Castle, Morro Castle and Punta Castle. The key represents that Havana was the gateway to the New World. The shield, supported by an oak branch on one side and a laurel wreath on the other, symbolizes the strength of the nation, the laurel wreath, honor and glory. These symbols represent human rights.[20][21]

history [edit]

16th Century[ edit ]

Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar founded Havana on August 25, 1515 on the south coast of the island, near the modern day town of Surgidero de Batabanó on the banks of the Mayabeque River near Playa Mayabeque. However, all attempts to found a city on Cuba’s southern coast failed; An early map of Cuba, drawn in 1514, places the city at the mouth of the river.

Between 1514 and 1519 the Spaniards established two settlements on the north coast, one at La Chorrera, around the Torreón de la Chorrera, which eventually became the districts of Vedado and Miramar, next to the mouth of the Almendares River. The city that became Havana arose in 1519 next to what was then called Puerto de Carenas (literally “Careening Bay”). The quality of this natural bay, which now houses the port of Havana, justified this change of location.

Pánfilo de Narváez gave his name to Havana – the sixth city founded by the Spaniards in Cuba: San Cristóbal de la Habana. The name connects San Cristóbal, patron saint of Havana. Shortly after the founding of Cuba’s first cities, the island served little more than a base for conquering other lands.

Havana began as a trading port and was regularly attacked by privateers, pirates and French corsairs. The first attack and the resulting burning of the city was in 1555 by the French corsair Jacques de Sores. Such attacks persuaded the Spanish Crown to finance the construction of the first forts in the most important cities – not only to counter the pirates and corsairs, but also to exert more control over the trade with the West Indies and limit the extensive smuggling (black market) that was being carried out due to trade restrictions imposed by the Casa de Contratación in Seville (the Crown-controlled trading house that held a monopoly on New World trade).

Ships from all over the New World brought products to Havana first, to be taken to Spain by the fleet. The thousands of ships that gathered in the city’s bay also fueled Havana’s agriculture and manufacturing as they needed to be supplied with food, water, and other products needed to cross the ocean.

On December 20, 1592, King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of city. The city was later officially designated by the Spanish Crown as the “Key to the New World and Wall of the West Indies”. Meanwhile, efforts to build or improve the city’s defense infrastructure continued.

17th century [ edit ]

Detail of the plan of the city, the port and the castles of San Christobal de La Habana-1776

Havana expanded greatly in the 17th century. New buildings were constructed using the island’s most common materials, mainly wood, combining different Iberian architectural styles and borrowing heavily from Canarian characteristics. During this period, the city also built civic monuments and religious buildings. The Convent of St. Augustine, the Castle of El Morro, the Chapel of the Humilladero, the Fountain of Dorotea de la Luna in La Chorrera, the Church of the Holy Angel, the Hospital de San Lazaro, the Convent of Santa Teresa and the Convent of San Felipe Neri were built in completed this time.

In 1649, a deadly epidemic imported from Cartagena in Colombia affected a third of Havana’s population. On November 30, 1665, Queen Mariana of Austria, widow of King Philip IV of Spain, ratified the heraldic shield of Cuba, whose symbolic motifs were the first three castles of Havana: the Real Fuerza, the Tres Santos Reyes Magos del Morro and San Salvador de la Punta. The shield also featured a symbolic golden key to represent the title “Key to the Gulf”. In 1674 work began on the city wall as part of the fortification work. They would be completed by 1740.

In the mid-18th century, Havana had a population of more than 70,000 and was the third largest city in America, behind Lima and Mexico City but ahead of Boston and New York.[24]

18th Century[ edit ]

During the 18th century Havana was the most important of the Spanish ports due to the facilities where ships could be refitted and by 1740 it was Spain’s largest and most active shipyard and only dry dock in the New World.[25]

During the Seven Years’ War, the city was taken by the British. The episode began on June 6, 1762, when at dawn a British fleet, consisting of more than 50 ships and a combined force of over 11,000 Royal Navy and Army men, sailed into Cuban waters and made an amphibious landing east of Havana. [26] The British immediately opened trade with their North American and Caribbean colonies, leading to a rapid transformation of Cuban society. Less than a year after the conquest of Havana, the three warring powers signed the Peace of Paris, ending the Seven Years’ War. The treaty gave Britain Florida in exchange for returning the city of Havana to Spain.[27]

After retaking the city, the Spanish transformed Havana into the most fortified city in America. Construction began on the Fort of San Carlos de la Cabaña, the third largest Spanish fort in the New World after Castillo San Cristóbal (the largest) and Castillo San Felipe del Morro, both in San Juan, Puerto Rico. On January 15, 1796, the remains of Christopher Columbus were transported from Santo Domingo to the island. They rested here until 1898, when, after the loss of Cuba by Spain, they were moved to Seville Cathedral.

19th Century[ edit ]

As trade between Caribbean and North American nations increased in the early 19th century, Havana became a thriving and fashionable city. Havana’s theaters featured the most respected actors of the day, and the affluence of the burgeoning middle class led to the construction of expensive new classical mansions. During this time, Havana became known as the Paris of the Antilles.

In 1837 the first railway was built, a 51 km line between Havana and Bejucal, used to transport sugar from the Güines Valley to the port. This made Cuba the fifth country in the world with a railroad and the first Spanish-speaking country. Throughout the century, Havana was enriched with the construction of additional cultural institutions such as the Tacon Teatre, one of the most luxurious in the world. The fact that slavery was legal in Cuba until 1886 led to South American interest, including a plan by the Knights of the Golden Circle to create a “Golden Circle” with a 1200-mile radius around Havana. After the Confederate States of America were defeated in the American Civil War in 1865, many former slave owners continued to operate plantations by moving to Havana.

In 1863 the city walls were torn down so that the metropolis could be enlarged. At the end of the 19th century, Havana witnessed the last moments of the Spanish presence in America.

Republican Period[ edit ]

Capitol, Havana

Cuba’s first presidency, under Tomás Estrada Palma from 1902 to 1906, was seen as maintaining the highest standards of administrative integrity in the history of the Republic of Cuba.[28] First he was President of the Cuban Republic during the Ten Years’ War and again between May 20, 1902 and September 28, 1906. Cuban literature aimed at gaining sympathy, support and publicity. He eventually managed to attract the attention of influential Americans. Estrada Palma was an early and persistent voice urging the United States to intervene in Cuba on humanitarian grounds. He was the first President of Cuba. Among his major achievements during his presidency are the improvement of Cuba’s infrastructure, communications and public health. However, he is remembered in Cuba for allowing passage of the Platt Amendment, which ensured US political and economic dominance over Cuba. While Cuba had the highest hospital bed-to-population ratio in Latin America, around 80% of those beds were in the city of Havana, there was only one rural hospital, and it was only equipped with 10 beds. In 1951 the World Bank reported that between 80 and 90% of rural children suffered from some form of intestinal parasites, in 1956 about 13% of the rural population had a history of typhoid and 14% had at one time tuberculosis.[29 ] A 1959 by the health authorities A study conducted showed that parasites affected about 72% of the population across the country, and in rural areas this percentage was as high as 86.54%. Only one in four farmers could afford to eat meat, eggs and fish regularly, and chronic unemployment was 25%.[30] Cuba was a very unequal society with only 8% landowners owning about 75% of the land, the bottom fifth of the population receiving 2% of the national income while one fifth of the population receiving 58% of the national income This was one of the lowest then and even today rates for the bottom 20% of the world.[31] Cuba was also under heavy US influence, to the point that the US controlled 80% of Cuban trade.[32] In 1959, American companies owned about 40% of Cuba’s sugar land, nearly all the cattle ranches, 90% of the mines, and 80% of the utilities.[33]

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In 1958, Cuba was a relatively advanced country by Latin American and, in some cases, world standards.[34] On the other hand, Cuba was affected by perhaps the greatest union privileges in Latin America, including bans on layoffs and mechanization. They were procured on a large scale “at the expense of the unemployed and the peasants,” leading to inequalities.[35] Between 1933 and 1958, Cuba expanded economic regulations enormously, leading to economic problems.[36] Unemployment became a problem as graduates entering the labor market were unable to find work. The middle class, comparable to the United States, became increasingly dissatisfied with unemployment and political persecution. The unions supported Batista to the end. Batista remained in power until he was forced into exile in December 1958.

revolution [edit]

Fidel Castro and his men in the Sierra Maestra, ca. 1957

The Cuban Revolution had national and international repercussions. In particular, it transformed relations between Cuba and the United States, although efforts to improve diplomatic relations have gained momentum in recent years, such as the Cuban thaw.[37][38] Immediately after the revolution, Castro’s government launched a program of nationalization, centralization of the press, and political consolidation that transformed Cuba’s economy and civil society.[39] The revolution also ushered in an era of Cuban medical internationalism and Cuban intervention in foreign conflicts in Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia and the Middle East.[40][41][42] In the six years after 1959, several rebellions broke out, mainly in the Escambray Mountains, which were defeated by the revolutionary government. After the 1959 revolution, the new government under Fidel Castro began improving social services, public housing and official buildings. After Castro’s abrupt expropriation of all private property and industry (from May 1959) under a strong communist model supported by the Soviet Union, followed by the US embargo, the bottlenecks affecting Cuba in general hit Havana particularly hard. From 1966 to 1968, under Law No. 1076, the Cuban government had nationalized all private business entities in Cuba, up to “certain types of small-scale retail trade”.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, there was an economic downturn. Soviet subsidies ended, representing billions of dollars given by the Soviet Union to the Cuban government. Many believed that the revolutionary government would soon collapse, as had happened with the Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe.

After many years of economic struggle and prohibition, the socialist government turned to tourism for revenue and persuaded foreign investors to convert the nationalized former Manzana de Gomez building and turn it into the Gran Hotel Manzana Kempinski La Habana to convert to a new 5 star hotel. Star hotel trying to develop a new hotel industry. In Old Havana, a number of streets and squares have been rehabilitated in order to rebuild them for tourists.[48] But Old Havana is a large city, and total restoration efforts are concentrated on less than 10% of its area.

Geography[ edit ]

Hill of the Castillo del Principe

Havana is located on the north coast of Cuba along the Florida Straits, just south of the Florida Keys where the Gulf of Mexico meets the Atlantic Ocean. The city extends mainly west and south from the bay, which is entered through a narrow bay and which divides into three main ports: Marimelena, Guanabacoa and Atarés. The Almendares River crosses the city from south to north and joins the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay.

There are low hills on which the city sits, rising gently from the waters of the strait. A notable elevation is the 60 meter high limestone ridge that slopes down from the east and culminates at the heights of La Cabaña and El Morro, the sites of Spanish fortifications overlooking the eastern bay. Another notable rise is the hill to the west occupied by the University of Havana and the Castillo del Príncipe (Havana).

Administration [edit]

Governor is Reinaldo García Zapata,[12] he was elected on January 18, 2020.[11]

The city is administered by a city-province council, with a governor as chief administrator,[49] thus Havana functions as both a city and a province of Cuba. The city has little autonomy and is particularly dependent on the national government for much of its budgetary and overall political direction.

The national government is headquartered in Havana and plays a highly visible role in the life of the city. In addition, the all-encompassing authority of many national institutions has resulted in a diminishing role for the city government, which, however, still provides much of the essential services and has competencies in education, healthcare, public transport, garbage collection, small industry, agriculture, etc. [ citation required]

Voters elect delegates to the municipal assemblies in competitive elections every five years, and the municipal assemblies have jurisdiction over each district of the city. These assemblies elect the district presidents and vice-presidents, who correspond to the mayors and vice-mayors in the other provinces. There is only one political party, the Communist Party, but since there must be at least two candidates, Communist Party members often compete against each other. Candidates do not have to be members of the party. They are nominated directly by citizens in open assemblies in each constituency. The delegates of the municipal assemblies in the districts in turn elect the members of the provincial council (until 2019 the provincial assembly), which in Havana functions roughly as the city council; Its president appoints the governor and lieutenant governor, who serve as the mayor and vice mayor of Havana, who can be either elected by the council or appointed by the president with confirmation from the council. There are direct ballot-based elections for the city’s deputies to the National Assembly, and part of the candidates are nominated at the local level. The People’s Councils (Consejos Populares) consist of local city deputies who elect a full-time representative to chair the body. These councils are directly responsible for the city’s neighborhoods and districts. In addition, there is participation of “mass organizations” and representatives of local government agencies, industries and services. The 105 People’s Councils in Havana have an average population of 20,000.

The city limits of Havana border the province of Mayabeque to the south and east and the province of Artemisa to the west, since the former province of La Habana (rural) was abolished in 2010.

Cityscape[ edit ]

Contemporary Havana can essentially be described as three cities in one: Old Havana, Vedado, and the newer suburban areas. [citation needed] Old Havana, with its narrow streets and overhanging balconies, is the traditional center of part of Havana’s commercial, industrial, and entertainment, as well as residential area.

To the west, a newer section centered on the uptown neighborhood known as Vedado has become Old Havana’s rival for business and nightlife. The Capitolio Nacional building marks the beginning of Centro Habana, a working-class neighborhood that lies between Vedado and Old Havana.[50] Barrio Chino and the Real Fabrica de Tabacos Partagás, one of the oldest cigar factories in Cuba, are in the area.[51]

A third Havana is that of the more affluent residential and industrial districts, spreading mainly westward. Among them is Marianao, one of the newer neighborhoods, dating mainly from the 1920s. Some of the suburban exclusivity was lost after the revolution, many of the suburban homes were nationalized by the Cuban government to serve as schools, hospitals and government offices. Several private country clubs have been converted into public recreation centers. Miramar, west of Vedado on the coast, remains Havana’s exclusive area; Mansions, foreign embassies, diplomatic residences, upscale shops and facilities for wealthy foreigners are common in the area. The International School of Havana is located in the Miramar district.

In the 1980s, many parts of Old Havana, including the Plaza de Armas, became part of a proposed 35-year, multimillion-dollar restoration project to allow Cubans to honor their past and boost tourism. Over the past decade[what?] much of Havana Vieja has been renovated with the help of foreign aid and the support of local urban historian Eusebio Leal Spengler. The city is progressing with its renovation work, with most of the major squares (Plaza Vieja, Plaza de la Catedral, Plaza de San Francisco and Plaza de Armas) and the main tourist streets (Obispo and Mercaderes) nearing completion.

Districts[edit]

The city is divided into 15 municipalities[53] – or districts, which in turn are divided into 105 districts[54] (consejos populares).

Demographics[ edit ]

Historical population year pop. ±% 1750 70,000 – 1931 740.7% 1943 868.426 +1953 1,139.579 +31.2% 1970 1.786.52 +56.81 1.929.432 +8.0% 2,171.671 +12.6% 2018 2.0% 2018 2.131.480 +1.

At the end of the official 2012 census, 19.1% of Cuba’s population lived in Havana.[5] According to the 2012 census, the population was 2,106,146.[5] The city has an average life expectancy of 76.81 years at birth.[5] In 2009 there were 1,924 people living with HIV/AIDS in the city, of which 78.9% were men and 21.1% were women.[55]

According to the official 2012 census (the Cuban census and similar studies use the term “skin color” instead of “race”).[5]

White: 58.4%, (Hispanic ancestry was most common) [5] [56]

Mestizo or mulatto (half-breed): 26.4%

(mixed race): 26.4% Black: 15.2%

Asian: 0.2%[56]

As in the other Caribbean nations, unlike many other Latin American countries, Havana (and Cuba as a whole) has few mestizos, as the indigenous Taíno population was virtually wiped out by Eurasian diseases in the earliest period of the Spanish conquest.[57]

The Havana agglomeration grew rapidly in the first half of the 20th century, reaching 1 million inhabitants in the 1943 census. Con-urbanization expanded beyond Havana’s municipal boundaries into the neighboring municipalities of Marianao, Regla, and Guanabacoa. From the 1980s, the city’s population is slowly growing due to balanced development policies, a low birth rate, a relatively high rate of exodus abroad, and controlled internal migration. Due to the city and country’s low birth rate and high life expectancy[4][58], its age structure is similar to that of a developed country, with Havana having an even higher proportion of elderly people than the country as a whole.[5]

The Cuban government controls passenger traffic to Havana on the grounds that Greater Havana (home to nearly 20% of the country’s population) is overstretched in terms of land use, water, electricity, transportation, and other elements of urban infrastructure. There is a population of internal migrants in Havana nicknamed “Palestinians” (Palestinians),[59] sometimes taken as a racist term,[60] these mainly hail from the eastern Oriente region.[61]

The city’s significant minority, mainly of Cantonese ancestry, were brought into the Philippines on labor contracts by Spanish settlers in the mid-19th century, and many Chinese immigrants settled permanently in Havana after completing 8-year contracts.[56] Before the revolution, the Chinese population numbered over 200,000[62] today Chinese ancestry could number as many as 100,000.[63][Failed verification] Chinese-born/native Chinese (mostly Cantonese too) are currently around 400.[64] About 3,000 Russians live in the city; According to the Russian Embassy in Havana, most are women married to Cubans who studied in the Soviet Union.[65] Havana is also home to other non-Cuban populations of unknown size. There is a population of several thousand North African youth and youth refugees.[66] Between 2018, the last census, and the mid-20th century census of 1953, Havana’s population grew by an estimated 87 percent, a growth rate typical of most Latin American cities.

Sights and historical centers[ edit ]

Old Havana[ edit ]

View of the Havana Cathedral from the side street. circa 1880s

In 1555, Old Havana was destroyed by the French corsair Jacques de Sores. The pirate had easily taken Havana, overpowered the few defenders, sacked the city, and burned much of it, but left without gaining the vast wealth he had hoped to find there. After the incident, the Spanish brought soldiers into the city and built forts and walls to protect it. The construction of Castillo de la Real Fuerza, the first fortress built, began in 1558 and was overseen by engineer Bartolomé Sanchez. Havana was founded on November 16, 1519 by the Spanish in the natural harbor of Havana Bay. It became a stopping point for the treasure-laden Spanish galleons crossing between the New World and the Old World. In the 17th century it was one of the most important shipbuilding centers. The city was built in Baroque and Neoclassical styles.[68] Many buildings fell into disrepair in the second half of the 20th century, but some are being restored.[69] The narrow streets of Old Havana contain many buildings, accounting for perhaps a third of the approximately 3,000 buildings found in Old Havana. It is the ancient city made up of the port, the official center and the Plaza de Armas. [citation required]

Old Havana is similar to Cadiz and Tenerife. Alejo Carpentier called it “de las columnas” (of the columns), but it could also be named after the gates, the revoco, the decay and salvation, the intimacy, the shade, the coolness, the courtyards. There are all the great ancient monuments, the fortresses, the monasteries and churches, the palaces, the alleys, the arcades. The Cuban state had made enormous efforts to preserve and restore Old Havana through the efforts of the city’s Office of Historians, headed by Eusebio Leal.[69]

Old Havana and its fortifications were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1982.[69]

Royal Shipyard of Havana[edit]

Royal Shipyard of Havana, Harvest by B. May Y Ca. Map, 1853

Plan and explanation of the Royal Shipyard of Havana on the island of Cuba and its environs (Library of Congress, date and author unknown)

The Royal Arsenal was located southeast of the Campo de Marte, just outside the city’s southernmost gate, in the area currently occupied by Havana’s main train station. Die Oberfläche des Königlichen Arsenals von Havanna bildete eine Art Viereck, das ungefähr neun Hektar einnahm. Von dieser großen Ausdehnung waren etwa drei Hektar unbebautes Land, zum größten Teil ungesund, niedrig gelegen und sumpfig; weitere fünf Hektar waren im Wesentlichen Materiallagerstätten, Kasernen und Lagern gewidmet; Davon wurden etwa zwei oder drei Hektar für den Schiffbau und die Schiffsreparatur genutzt, und hier befanden sich die wichtigsten Einrichtungen: Davits, Kräne, Brüstungen, Docks, Transportgruben, von denen die größte fast 150 Meter lang war Ende 18. Jahrhundert; Es hatte auch ein Krankenhaus, das für die hohe Todesrate aufgrund von Gelbfieber bei Patienten, die aus anderen Gründen dort aufgenommen wurden, schicksalhaft berühmt war. Auf der Südseite des Arsenals bildeten etwa 500 Meter Küstenlinie eine kleine Bucht von fast einem Hektar Fläche mit niedrigem Meeresboden, die es ermöglichte, die gebauten Schiffe reibungslos zu Wasser zu lassen.

La Alameda de Paula [Bearbeiten]

Die Alameda de Paula ist eine Promenade in Havanna, Kuba, und war die erste, die in der Stadt gebaut wurde.

Die Alameda de Paula wurde von Generalkapitän (spanisch: Capitanía General de Cuba) Felipe de Fons de Viela, Mitglied des Hofes von König Carlos III, in Auftrag gegeben. Es wurde 1777 vom Architekten Antonio Fernández de Trebejos erbaut. An der Stelle der alten Mülldeponie von Rincón war die Promenade ursprünglich ein Feldweg mit einigen Bänken und wurde von zwei Reihen Pappeln flankiert. Den Namen Alameda de Paula erhielt sie wegen ihrer Nähe zum Krankenhaus und der Iglesia von San Francisco de Paula, die 1664 erbaut worden waren. 1847 wurde ein verzierter Marmorbrunnen errichtet Steinbänke, Laternenpfähle und die Marmorsäule wurden hinzugefügt, was sich als angenehme Unterhaltung für die Bewohner der Villa de San Cristóbal erwies, denen es damals an Erholungsmöglichkeiten mangelte. Die Alameda de Paula wurde zu einem der wichtigsten sozialen und kulturellen Orte Havannas und zum Vorbild des 1925 von Jean-Claude Nicolas Forestier entworfenen Paseo del Prado.

Frédéric Mialhe_Álbum pintoresco de la Isla de Cuba. Zeigt Alameda de Paula [1] mit dem Krankenhaus und der Iglesia de San Francisco de Paula. 1840. Wegen seiner Nähe zum alten Krankenhaus und der Iglesia von San Francisco de Paula erhielt es den Namen Alameda de Paula

Die Alameda de Paula wurde zu einem der wichtigsten sozialen und kulturellen Orte Havannas, sie war das Modell des 1925 von Jean-Claude Nicolas Forestier entworfenen Paseo del Prado. Wegen seiner Nähe zum alten Krankenhaus und der Iglesia von San Francisco de Paula erhielt es den Namen Alameda de Paula. Zwischen 1803 und 1805 wurde der Bürgersteig gefliest, ein Brunnen und Steinbänke, Laternenpfähle und die Marmorsäule wurden hinzugefügt, was sich als angenehme Unterhaltung für die Bewohner der Villa de San Cristóbal erwies, denen es damals an Erholungsmöglichkeiten mangelte.

Alameda de Paula während der Renovierung in den 1940er Jahren

The promenade was the subject of various transformations in the course of the 19th century; the embankment was tiled, a fountain was located there and the back of the seats was latticed. By that time it was considered the most popular and busiest place in the city. Toilets were built which increased its popularity. In the 1940s, squares were drawn at its ends, widened, and provided with access stairs and seats, street lamps were updated.[71]

In 1841, the stairs that gave access to the promenade were widened and several lampposts were added. In the year 2000, the Havana promenade was restored and extended until it reached the Iglesia de San Francisco de Paula.[72]

Paseo de Tacón [ edit ]

Paseo de Tacón_Avenida Carlos III, La Habana, 1952

The Paseo de Tacón, or Paseo Militar, was created by the Captain General (Spanish: Capitanía General de Cuba) Miguel Tacón y Rosique (1834–1838)[a] who promoted the reform of the “road” that, starting from the calles of San Luis de Gonzaga (Reina)[b] and Belascoáin, connected to the Castillo del Príncipe. Calle Belascoáin was the edge between the city and the countryside.[74]

View of the entrance to the Tacon promenade (Havana)

Avenida Carlos III, was a promenade that Captain General (Spanish: Capitanía General de Cuba) Miguel Tacón y Rosique, put into operation in 1836. When first created, it was called the Paseo de Tacón. Years later, the name was changed to Carlos III in honor of the King of Spain, a statue of the king was erected. Avenida de Carlos III begins at the intersection with the Ayestarán and Presidente Menocal or Calle Infanta.[75]

The beautification plan of Havana by the engineer Mariano Carrillo de Albornoz during the third decade of the nineteenth century, contemplated the construction of s comfortable and beautiful walk that would serve for the recreation of the city’s residents who were already spreading to more and more of its original city limits and as framed by the original wall that protected them from foreign attacks.[75]

The Paseo de Tacón would allow for better communication with the Spanish troops in the Castillo del Príncipe, because until then it was difficult to reach that military installation by having to circumvent a low and muddy road that became practically impassable in times of rains.[75]

Tacon said about this project:

“It lacked the capital of a country walk where you could breathe the pure and free air, and I resolved to undertake it from the field that they call from Peñalver to the hillside where the Prince’s castle is located. It was this site, once swampy and watery, the most on purpose for a work of this kind in the surroundings of this city, in the part where it is not surrounded by the sea. There was also another reason that turned the work into doubly useful, which was the frank communication of this square with the castle, interrupted by that part in the rainy season.”[74]

Well-known since the time of the monarchy by the name Carlos III, the street is more than 50 meters in width and serves to direct traffic to and from the oldest areas of Havana. It has four lanes of traffic it is the widest traffic artery in the city.[75]

Quinta de los molinos [ edit ]

Quinta de los Molinos

The Quinta de Los Molinos [76] is more than two centuries old and a national monument, an oasis in the heart of the city located at the intersection of one of Havana’s heaviest traffic arteries: Infanta, Carlos III, and Boyeros avenues.[77] The Quinta since Spanish times has had a complicated history to various events and characters, mainly with General Máximo Gómez.[78]

The original area exceeded the territory it currently occupies as it extended north to approximately the location of the University of Havana, to the northwest to Hospital Calixto García, and west to G Street, including the Castillo del Principe, and south to Salvador Allende avenue and east to Infanta street.[79][80]

It is in the general vicinity of the Paseo de Tacón (Avenida Carlos III), the University of Havana, and the Castillo del Principe.[76] [78] Residence of the Captains General in Quinta de los Molinos in the decades of 1850–1870, Havana, Cuba.

The Quinta de Los Molinos [81] was the location where the Captaincy General of Cuba maintained their summer residence [82] in the 1850s – 1870s.[83]

The location acquires the name Quinta de Los Molinos,[79] due to the existence of two mills used to grind tobacco and obtain snuff. The mills were owned by Martín de Aróstegui, president of the Royal Tobacco Factory belonging to the Spanish king, hence its name. This name appeared in the National Archive of Cuba in 1850 and has been maintained to this day. Before 1850 it was known as the Tacón Garden, as it appears in a plan of 1843 and in a marble plaque, enclosed in the wall of an old building in the area.[78]

These mills operated until the second half of the 19th century, moved by the force of the water from the so-called Zanja Real, the first aqueduct that Havana had. Its construction began in 1592, and they were finished after 27 years of work. Very close to the Cathedral of Havana is the Callejón del Chorro, whose name comes from its old use. Originally the cathedral was called Plaza de la Ciénaga, since it was there where the people of Havana came to stock up on water, brought by the Zanja Real.[78]

At the end of the War of Independence in Cuba, with the defeat of Spain and in the absence of the representation of the Cuban people, the Treaty of Paris was signed on December 10. After the war was formally ended, the President of the Republic of Cuba in Arms, Bartolomé Masó, met the Assembly of Representatives of Santa Cruz del Sur and resigned from his position. The Assembly moved to Havana, to house number 819 on Calzada del Cerro.[78]

The more than 11 km long El Chorro, as the Zanja Real was known, started at the Almendares River and brought water to Old Havana crossing Zanja Street (bearing its name). This first aqueduct ceased its use with the development of the city. Thus the Spanish government was forced to find an alternative solution for the supply of water to Old Havana, creating in 1835, the aqueduct of Fernando VII and the Albear in 1858 which were joined in 1878.[78]

Map Quinta de los Molinos, 1841

When the king’s mills disappeared, the Botanical Garden of Havana was founded, along with the construction of the resthouse of the Captaincy General of Cuba. Starting in the 1820s, research and studies on plants were carried out by Felipe Poey Aloy. The Botanical Garden was transferred, from the area that currently includes the American Fraternity Park and the south of the National Capitol, where the first Botanical Garden had been founded in 1817.[78]

The herbarium of the old Botanical Garden of Havana, in which it was started, sought the development of the botanical collection. Álvaro Reinoso carried out many of his experiments, having many small plots dedicated to the cultivation of sugar cane. The University of Havana took over between 1850 and 1871, during this time it passed into the hands of the Spanish government for a period of 8 years.[78]

After this period, the Spanish government returned the land to the university establishing the School of Botany, which sharing its function with the School of Second Education.[78]

In 1906 the garden was inscribed in the World System of Botanical Gardens. The butterfly Hedychium coronarium was declared in 1936 as the national flower of Cuba.[78] The villa’s botanical garden was surrounded by wrought-iron railings. In addition to its plants, attributing it in 1906 a place in the International Association of Botanic Gardens, there are life-size statues and busts of Olympian gods such as Minerva, Juno, and Ceres.[84]

In 1888 the Cuban Grand Master and World Chess Champion José Raúl Capablanca was born in the Castillo del Príncipe whose father was a Spanish army officer who lived there.[85]

El Malecon [ edit ]

El Malecon

The Malecón (officially Avenida de Maceo) is a broad esplanade, roadway, and seawall that stretches for 8 km (5 miles) along the coast in Havana, Cuba,[86] from the mouth of Havana Harbor in Old Havana, along the north side of the Centro Habana neighborhood and the Vedado neighborhood, ending at the mouth of the Almendares River. New businesses are appearing on the esplanade due to economic reforms in Cuba that now allow Cubans to own private businesses.[87]

El Malecon in 1925

Construction of the Malecón began in 1901, during temporary U.S. military rule.[88] The main purpose of building the Malecón was to protect Havana from the sea.[88]

To celebrate the construction of the first 500m section of the Malecón, the American government built a roundabout at the intersection of Paseo del Prado, which, according to architects of the period, was the first one built in Cuba with steel-reinforced concrete. In front of the roundabout, where every Sunday bands played Cuban melodies, the Miramar Hotel was built, which was very much in fashion for the first 15 years of independence, and which was the first one where the waiters wore tuxedos (dinner jackets) and vests (waistcoats) with gold buttons.[88]

Subsequent Cuban governments continued the extension of the first section of the Malecón. In 1923, it reached the mouth of the Almendares River between K and L streets in Vedado, where the United States Embassy was built, near the José Martí Sports Park and, further out, the Hotel Rosita de Hornedo (today, the Sierra Maestra).[88]

In 1957 and 1958, the roadway served as the venue of the Cuban Grand Prix.

Malecon before construction, ca 1900.

In 1901 and 1902, from the Paseo del Prado to Calle Crespo

Between 1902 and 1921 as far as the Monument to the Victims of the USS Maine

Between 1948 and 1952 to the mouth of the Almendares River

The Malecón continues to be popular among Cubans.[88]

It is also a means of income for poorer families as individual fishermen cast their lures there. In addition, it is a hotspot for prostitution in Cuba by men and women.[88]

Although the houses lining the Malecón are mostly in ruins, the Malecón remains one of the most spectacular and popular destinations in Havana.[88]

There are a number of important monuments along the Malecón, including those to General Máximo Gomez, Antonio Maceo, General Calixto García, and the Monument to the Victims of the USS Maine.

At the intersection of 23rd Street, the Malecón marks the northeast end of the La Rampa section of 23rd Street, Vedado.

In the Plaza de la Dignidad is a statue of José Martí and in front of the Embassy of the United States, the José Martí Anti-Imperialist Platform.

Significant buildings include the Castillo de la Real Fuerza, the Castillo de San Salvador de la Punta, Malecón 17 (Las Cariátides) and the Hotel Nacional.

There were several buildings, monuments, and geographical features that were a part of Barrio de San Lázaro including the Torreón de San Lázaro, La Casa de Beneficencia, Hospital de San Lázaro, exthe Espada Cemetery, the Casa de Dementes de San Dionisio, the Quarry of San Lázaro, the Batería de la Reina, the Santa Clara Battery, and Hill of Taganana, among others.

The Malecón has served as an inspiration for several cocktail names, including the “Malecón cocktail” by John Escalante that can be traced back to his 1915 Cuban cocktail guide, Manual Del Cantinero (p,23).[89]

Colón Cemetery [ edit ]

The Colón Cemetery concept-design diagram.

El Cementerio de Cristóbal Colón, also called La Necrópolis de Cristóbal Colón,[90] was founded in 1876 in the Vedado neighbourhood of Havana, Cuba to replace the Espada Cemetery in the Barrio de San Lázaro.[91]

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Named for Christopher Columbus, the cemetery is noted for its many elaborately sculpted memorials. It is estimated the cemetery has more than 500 major mausoleums. Before the Espada Cemetery and the Colón Cemetery were built, interments took place in crypts at the various churches throughout Havana, for example, at the Havana Cathedral or Church Crypts in Havana Vieja. The Colón Cemetery is one of the most important cemeteries in the world and is generally held to be one of the most important in Latin America in historical and architectural terms, second only to La Recoleta in Buenos Aires. Prior to the opening of the Colón Cemetery, Havana’s dead were laid to rest in the crypts of local churches and then, beginning in 1806, at Havana’s newly opened Espada Cemetery located in the Barrio de San Lazaro and near the cove of Juan Guillen close to the San Lázaro Leper Hospital and the Casa de Beneficencia. When locals realized there would be a need for a larger space for their community for the deceased (due to a cholera outbreak in 1868), planning began for the Colón Cemetery.[92]

The Colón is a Catholic cemetery and has elaborate monuments, tombs and statues by 19th and 20th century artists. Plots were assigned according to social class, and soon became a means for patrician families to display their wealth and power with ever more elaborate tombs and mausoleums. The north main entrance is marked by a gateway decorated with biblical reliefs and topped by a marble sculpture by José Vilalta Saavedra: Faith, Hope and Charity. Some of the most important and elaborate tombs lie between the main gate and the Capilla Central. The Monumento a los Bomberos (Firemen’s Monument) built by Spanish sculptor Agustín Querol and architect Julio M Zapata, commemorates the twenty eight firemen who died when a hardware shop in La Habana Vieja caught fire in 1890.

The Colón Cemetery, Havana NE Corner (Calle 18 and Calle N Calzada Zapata and San Antonio Chiquito and Calle 29. May 7, 1949

In front of the main entrance, at the axes of the principal avenues Avenida Cristóbal Colón, Obispo Espada, and Obispo Fray Jacinto, stands the Central Chapel modelled on Il Duomo in Florence is the octagonal Capilla Central (central chapel), the Capilla del Amor (Chapel of Love), built by Juan Pedro Baró for his wife Catalina Laza. On every side rectangular streets lead geometrically to the cemetery’s 50,000 hectares. The area of the cemetery is defined by rank and social status of the dead with distinct areas: priests, soldiers, brotherhoods, the wealthy, the poor, infants, victims of epidemics, pagans and the condemned. The best preserved and grandest tombs stand on or near the central avenues and their axes.

With more than 800,000 graves and 1 million interments, space in the Colón Cemetery is currently at a premium and as such after three years remains are removed from their tombs, boxed and placed in a storage building.

Yet, for all its elegance and grandeur, the Colón Cemetery conceals as much as it displays. Empty tombs and desecrated family chapels disfigure the stately march of family memorials even in the most prominent of the avenues, and away from the central cross-streets are in ruin. Many of these are the tombs of exiled families, whose problems with caring for their dead have been complicated by residency outside of Cuba since the Revolution of 1959.

The Cementerio Colón measures 620 by 800 meters (122.5 acres). Designed by the Galician architect Calixto Arellano de Loira y Cardoso, a graduate of Madrid’s Royal Academy of Arts of San Fernando, who became the Colón’s first resident when he died and before his work was completed. It was built between 1871 and 1886, on former farmland. Laid out in a grid similar to El Vedado by numbered and lettered streets it becomes an urban microcosm of the city. The cemetery contains works by some of the most distinguished Cuban artists of the 19th and 20th centuries, such as Miguel Melero, José Vilalta de Saavedra, Rene Portocarrero, Rita longa, Eugenio Batista, Max Sorges Recio, Juan José Sicre, and others.[93]

The design follows the custom of laying out the plan with five crosses formed by perpendicularly intersecting streets. The two main avenues give rise to the central cross, each of the four resulting spaces, called barracks, is subdivided in turn by two other streets that intersect at right angles. Five squares are formed at the intersections, the main one of which is the Central Chapel, with an octagonal floor plan and surrounded by portals, a Loire project completed with modifications by Francisco Marcotegui.[93]

The Colón cemetery’s main gate before 1901

The cemetery is laid out roughly on a north–south axis, parallel to the last stretch of the Almendares River, and against the street grid of Vedado. It is on the north axis, thus its main streets are on the four cardinal points of the compass. Symbolized by a Greek cross, it represents the four directions of the earth and the spread of the gospel to all directions as well as the four platonic elements.[94] We find Greek crosses against a yellow background along the perimeter fence enclosing the cemetery, as well as part of the design diagram of the cemetery, which employs several Greek crosses at different scales thus forming an architectural tapestry. The main avenues, Avenida Cristóbal Colón, Obispo Espada, and Obispo Fray Jacinto, at six hundred by eight hundred meters, is the first cross at the scale of the city (red cross-areal photo).[95]

Calixto Arellano de Loira y Cardoso was also the designer of the main portal, of Romanesque inspiration. It is 21.66 meters high, 34.40 in length, and 2.50 in thickness, executed with variations by Eugenio Rayneri Sorrentino [c] for and eventually crowned, by José Vilalta Saavedra, by the sculptural group Fe. Esperanza y Caridad (Faith, Hope and Charity). The first stone for its construction was placed on October 30, 1871, since 1868 burials have been carried out.[93]

Paseo del Prado [ edit ]

Construction of the first European-style boulevard in Havana, the first street of its type outside the city walls, was proposed by Don Felipe Fons de Viela y Ondeano in 1770, and work was completed in the mid-1830s during the term of Captain General (Spanish: Capitanía General de Cuba) Miguel Tacón y Rosique (1834–1838)[d] who was also responsible for the Paseo de Tacón, the Plaza del Vapor and the Tacón Theatre.

in 1925 French landscape architect Jean-Claude Nicolas Forestier redesigned the Paseo del Prado, lined it with trees, bronze sculptures of lions, coral stone walls and marble benches.[96] The bronze lions were added in 1928. The Lions were commissioned by President Gerardo Machado. They were authored by French sculptor Jean Puiforcat and Cuban-born master caster Juan Comas Masique, who used the metal from decommissioned cannons to forge the lions.

Lining the boulevard are important buildings such as the Gran Teatro de La Habana, hotels (including the Hotel Sevilla), cinemas such as the Fausto,[97] theaters, and mansions imitating styles from Madrid, París and Vienna. El Prado was the first paved street in Havana. When El Capitolio was built in 1929 that section of the promenade was removed.[96] At the corner of Cárcel street the car dealership Packard & Cunnigham was located, and in 1940 the radio network RHC-Cadena Azul established its studios on the Prado.

Forestier’s master plan for Havana of 1924

Jean-Claude Nicolas Forestier (9 January 1861 in Aix-les-Bains – 26 October 1930 in Paris) was a French landscape architect, who trained with Adolphe Alphand and became conservator of the promenades of Paris. Forestier was the landscape architect of El Prado and had moved to Havana from France for five years to collaborate with architects and landscape architects on various projects throughout the city including the design of the gardens for the Capitolio. He worked on the master plan of the city with the aim to create a harmonic balance between classical forms and the tropical landscape of Havana. He embraced and connected the city’s road network while accentuating prominent landmarks through a series of parks, avenues, “paseos,” and boulevards which 50 years later proved to be a direct contrast to the Havana Plan Piloto of Josep Lluis Sert which was influenced by CIAM planning principles. The Congrès internationaux d’architecture moderne (CIAM), was an organization founded in 1928 and disbanded in 1959, responsible for a series of events and congresses arranged across Europe by the most prominent architects of the time, with the objective of spreading the principles of the Modern Movement focusing in all the main domains of architecture, landscape architecture, urbanism, industrial design, and many other design practices. Nicolas Forestier’s influence has left his mark on Havana; many of his ideas were cut short by the Great Depression of 1929. The Paseo del Prado had been a replacement for the first promenade in the City of La Alameda de Paula which was built around 1776 by Antonio Fernández Trevejo. By the 1950s, families were moving from the Prado to Miramar and other parts of the city such as the Vedado and Siboney. After the 1959 revolution, the Prado streets and many of its buildings were, like the majority of buildings in Havana, physically deteriorated to the point that many collapsed and remain to this day in a ruined state.

Barrio Chino [ edit ]

Barrio Chino in Centro Habana

Barrio Chino was once Latin America’s largest and most vibrant Chinese community,[98][99][100] incorporated into the city by the early part of the 20th century. Hundreds of thousands of Chinese workers were brought in by Spanish settlers from Guangdong, Fujian, Hong Kong, and Macau via Manila, Philippines[101] starting in the mid-19th century to replace or work alongside African slaves.[102] After completing 8-year contracts, many Chinese immigrants settled permanently in Havana.

The first 206 Chinese-born arrived in Havana on June 3, 1847.[103] The neighborhood was booming with Chinese restaurants, laundries, banks, pharmacies, theaters and several Chinese-language newspapers, the neighborhood comprised 44 square blocks during its prime.[98][102] The heart of Barrio Chino is on el Cuchillo de Zanja (or The Zanja Canal). The strip is a pedestrian-only street adorned with many red lanterns, dancing red paper dragons and other Chinese cultural designs, there is a great number of restaurants that served a full spectrum of Chinese dishes.

The district has two paifang (Chinese arches), the larger one located on Calle Dragones. China donated the materials in the late 1990s.[104] It has a well defined written welcoming sign in Chinese and Spanish. The smaller arch is located on Calle Zanja. The Cuban’s Chinese boom ended when Fidel Castro’s 1959 revolution seized private businesses, sending tens of thousands of business-minded Chinese fleeing, mainly to the United States. Descendants are now making efforts to preserve and revive the culture.[99]

culture [edit]

Architecture [ edit ]

Castle of the Real Fuerza, 1577

Havana has diverse styles of architecture, from castles built in the 16th century, to modernist high-rise buildings. The present condition of many structures have deteriorated since 1959 or have been demolished, including the demolition of the Plaza del Vapor, built in 1835 by the architect of the Palacio de la Marquesa de Villalba Eugenio Rayneri Sorrentino the father of Eugenio Rayneri Piedra the architect of the El Capitolio of 1929. The Plaza del Vapor was demolished in 1959 by the new, revolutionary government.[e][f] Numerous building collapses throughout the city have resulted in injuries and deaths due to a lack of maintenance.[108][109]

Spanish [ edit ]

Riches were brought from the Spanish into and through Havana as it was a key transshipment point between the new world and old world. As a result, Havana was the most heavily fortified city in the Americas. Most examples of early architecture can be seen in military fortifications such as La Fortaleza de San Carlos de la Cabana (1558–1577) designed by Battista Antonelli and the Castillo del Morro (1589–1630). This sits at the entrance of Havana Bay and provides an insight into the supremacy and wealth at that time.

Old Havana was also protected by a defensive wall begun in 1674 but had already overgrown its boundaries when it was completed in 1767, becoming the new neighborhood of Centro Habana. The influence from different styles and cultures can be seen in Havana’s Spanish architecture, with a diverse range of Moorish architecture, Spanish, Italian, Greek and Roman. The San Carlos and San Ambrosio Seminary (18th century) is a good example of early Spanish influenced architecture. The Havana cathedral (1748–1777) dominating the Plaza de la Catedral (1749) is the best example of Cuban Baroque. Surrounding it are the former palaces of the Count de Casa-Bayona (1720–1746) Marquis de Arcos (1746) and the Marquis de Aguas Claras (1751–1775).

Iglesia del Espíritu [ edit ]

Iglesia del Espíritu Santo, Havana, Cuba

The Iglesia del Espíritu Santo at #161 Calle Acosta was built in 1635 on the corner of the corner of Calles Cuba and Acosta by a fraternity of Afro-Cuban ex slaves. The Espíritu Santo contains some notable paintings including a seated, post-crucifixion Christ on the right wall, and catacombs.[110] It is considered one of the oldest temples in Havana and it is said that its main interest lies essentially in the simplicity or simplicity of the beautiful stone construction.[111]

The church was rebuilt and expanded in 1648 and given the rank of a parish. During the Spanish era it had exceptional importance, since by a Papal Bull of 1772 and a Royal Certificate of 1773, of Charles III of Spain, it was declared “Única Iglesia inmune en esta ciudad, construida en 1855.” (”the only immune church in this city, built-in 1855.”), which meant that any persecuted individual could find Amparo (sanctuary) in it against the action of the authorities or of justice. A metal plaque at the foot of the bell tower attests to this fact.[111]

Many illustrious people of Havana were baptized in this church, among them the educator José de la Luz y Caballero. Bishop Gerónimo Valdés, a founder of La Casa de Beneficencia y Maternidad de La Habana, was buried in the Church; the master sepulcher of Bishop Valdés was found in 1936.

There are original paintings by the Cuban painter José Nicolás de la Escalera (“Cuba’s first painter”) and Aristides Fernandez (20th century), among them the large oil painting titled The Burial of Christ.[111]

Plan of Iglesia del Espíritu Santo, Havana, Cuba

Iglesia del Espíritu Santo_roof construction looking towards the front.

The Iglesia del Espíritu Santo’s greatest interest from an architectural point of view lies in the simplicity of the coral stone construction and the lack of lavish decoration.[112][g] Other elements of great importance are the funerary crypts that were discovered in 1953. The crypt is from times before the Colón Cemetery (1876) in El Vedado was built. The crypt is entered from the left of the altar and contains several catacombs.

Cuban uni-nave [ edit ]

The building was built in the “uni-nave” style, as pointed out by Joaquín Weiss, a Cuban architect, and historian and one of the most authoritative authorities on the subject. Uni-nave was the style of Cuban religious constructions in the seventeenth century and meant that it originally had only one central nave.[111] An additional side nave In the first years of the 18th century, the bell tower was built and around 1720 the vault of the presbytery was built. In 1760, Bishop D. Pedro Morell of Santa Cruz ordered the construction of a nave (8x29m) lateral to the main temple nave.[113]

The church sits on a plinth of about 18 cm that may be seen along Calles Cuba and Acosta. The building is 60m long as measured on the exterior, east–west along Calle Acosta, although from the interior it appears that the last 10m was a later addition as the walls of this ten-meter square room are thinner (along Calle Acosta) and the roof structure does not span the ten-meter dimension. There is a column in the middle of the room to distribute the weight of the roof.

There are seven bays of approximately fifty-seven centimeters in length along the main nave. The first bay at the entrance is the shortest of about five meters in length and contains a balcony above which is reached by the stairs of the belfry. The elliptical arch supported by matching pilasters at opposite walls date from 1808 which is the year of the construction of the bell tower. In the middle of the 19th century, the entire wall that faces Acosta Street was rebuilt and the main façade was remodeled. The three-story bell-tower was built in the year 1808 and it is located immediately to the left of the church upon entering, it is one of the tallest structures in Old Havana. The tower was built by the master Pedro Hernández de Santiago.[111]

There are five windows along the Calle Acosta wall and, except for the window in the presbytery which aligns with the center of the room, do not align with the grid of the columns. Thus the windows appear to be haphazardly placed without regard for the geometry of the nave or the rhythm of the structure.

Ceiling [ edit ]

The roof of the church terminates on the interior in a wooden ceiling of paired cross-tie braces and hidden tie backs springing from every column and supported on wooden corbels. The wood cross-tie brace ceiling is a common construction in Havana and may be seen in the wooden ceiling of the Church of Santo Cristo del Buen Viaje at Amargura and Cristo Streets in Havana Vieja and Iglesia de Santa Clara de Asis.[114]

Iglesia de San Francisco de Paula [ edit ]

Iglesia y hospital San Francisco de Paula

The Alameda de Paula was the first promenade in Cuba, designed and constructed in 1776 by Antonio Fernández Trevejo, following the instructions of the Laureano de Torres y Ayala, it was created on the site of the old Rincón refuse dump. It was a was an embankment with two rows of poplar trees and some benches, it became one of Havana’s most important social and cultural spaces, it was the model of the Paseo del Prado designed in 1925. It was given the name Alameda de Paula because of its proximity to the old Hospital and Iglesia of San Francisco de Paula. Between 1803 and 1805 the pavement was tiled, a fountain and stone benches, lampposts and the marble column were added, it qualified as a pleasant entertainment for the residents of the Villa de San Cristóbal, lacking recreational sites at that time.

In 1841, the stairs that gave access to the promenade were widened and several lampposts were added. In the year 2000, the Havana promenade was restored and extended until it reached the Iglesia de San Francisco de Paula.[72]

Towards the end of the 17th century, the first stone of what would be the hospital for women and the church of San Francisco de Paula was placed, the buildings were expanded in 1731 with the support and donations from the City Council and orders of the different General Captains in command of the island. In 1776, it was the most important hospital in Havana, there were several generations of famous doctors that trained here.[115]

The Presbyter of the Cathedral of Havana, don Nicolás Estévez Borges, in 1664 ordered the construction of a Hospital for Women and an adjoining church devoted to Saint Francis of Paola who was one of the founders of the Roman Catholic Order of the Minims. [h] San Francisco de Paula (1416-1507) was a hermit, famous for his humility and his miracles. His party is celebrated on April 2.

Both buildings were completely destroyed by a hurricane in 1730 and were rebuilt and enlarged in 1745 in the Baroque style we see today, resulting in the Royal Hospital of Havana and the Church of San Francisco de Paula.[72]

The Havana Central Railroad, a U. S. company, in 1907 attempted to acquire the temple for its own corporate use. The Central Railroad’s several attempts to acquire and eventually demolish the church were frustrated by the opposition of historian Emilio Roig de Leuchsenring and anthropologist don Fernando Ortiz. Their efforts not only stopped the demolition of the church but also got it listed as National Monument in 1944. Havana Central Railroads, however, was able to bring down the hospital upon approval from the relevant authorities at the time.

An example of the pre-Churrigueresque Baroque style, the floor plan of the Iglesia de San Francisco de Paula is typologically similar to the Iglesia de San Francisco de Asís as both ground plans are based on a Latin cross. The façade has a central arched doorway and columns at the sides, typical of Spanish churches. There is a belfry in the front, but the 3 bells were never be recovered after the hurricane of 1730. The Office of the City Historian restored the stained glass windows.[116]

Church San Francisco de Paula, Havana, Cuba

The Iglesia de San Francisco de Paula is a representative example of the Cuban Baroque of the first half of the 18th century. The portion of the church that still exists, the octagonal base of the dome, the façade, and the stained glass windows, all part of the original building of 1745, have all been restored. The facade is similar to that of the church of Santo Domingo, in Guanabacoa [117] and the convent of San Francisco de Asís, built on a similar date. The nave has a barrel vault with a dome that marks the crossing. As an altarpiece, it has a stained glass window. It has the only organ that has been preserved in Cuba with its original pipe and machinery in its original location. The church contains the ashes of the Cuban violinist Claudio Brindis de Salas Garrido (1852-1911), considered one of the best violinists of his time.[72]

Neoclassical [ edit ]

Neoclassism was introduced into the city in the 1840s, at the time including Gas public lighting in 1848 and the railroad in 1837. In the second half of the 18th century, sugar and coffee production increased rapidly, which became essential in the development of Havana’s most prominent architectural style. Many wealthy Habaneros took their inspiration from the French; this can be seen within the interiors of upper-class houses such as the Aldama Palace built in 1844. This is considered the most important neoclassical residential building in Cuba and typifies the design of many houses of this period with portales of neoclassical columns facing open spaces or courtyards.

In 1925 Jean-Claude Nicolas Forestier, the head of urban planning in Paris moved to Havana for five years to collaborate with architects and landscape designers. In the master planning of the city his aim was to create a harmonic balance between the classical built form and the tropical landscape. He embraced and connected the city’s road networks while accentuating prominent landmarks. His influence has left a huge mark on Havana although many of his ideas were cut short by the great depression in 1929. During the first decades of the 20th century Havana expanded more rapidly than at any time during its history. Great wealth prompted architectural styles to be influenced from abroad. The peak of Neoclassicism came with the construction of the Vedado district (begun in 1859). This area features a number of set back well-proportioned buildings in the Neoclassical style.

Palacio de la Marquesa de Villalba [ edit ]

Palacio de Villalba

Built in 1875, in the Reparto de las Las Murallas, (wide strip of land that remained after the city walls were demolished in 1863), it was the work of the architect Eugenio Rayneri y Sorrentino.[i] Around 1880 the mansion was owned by the Count of Casa Moré. The “La Flor de José Murias” tobacco factory was installed in the building. Later, through the exploitation of rents, it became a tenement house. In 1951 some of its spaces were dedicated to housing. On its upper floor, the Spanish Center and the Israeli Center of Cuba had their headquarters.

The palace of the Marquesa de Villalba and the Mercado de Tacón were designed by the Eugenio Rayneri y Sorrentino at almost the same time, 1875 and 1876, respectively, each in a style that accommodated the particular typology (residential and commercial) thus conceiving each work with the formal element accommodating different aesthetic requirements.[118]

Palacio de la Marquesa de Villalba, floor plan

1853 Map of Havana shows urban condition of the wall before demolition

The property is, after the Aldama Palace, the strongest example of Cuban Neoclassicism. The palace of the Marquesa de Villalba is in the neoclassical style, perhaps only comparable in Havana – according to Alina Castellanos – to the Aldama Palace. But while the latter limits the decoration to the natural slenderness of the colonnade, in the most classical way of the Greek Parthenon, the former uses Roman and Renaissance elaborations, hence, the arcade has been projected on pillars, the building was crowned with a considerable cornice. The neoclassical decoration can also be seen in the window covers, which take alternate forms of a triangular or semicircular pediment, and glass over the door, similar to the Plaza del Vapor.[119]

Some interior spaces and the openings to the street on the ground floor have been heavily modified, it is still possible to appreciate the monumentality of the building in its three street facades, well proportioned, with a portal composed of a semicircular arcade that culminates in pointed arches at the ends. There are openings on the upper floor, which are alternately topped by triangular or semicircular pediments, a detail that shows a strong influence of the Italian Renaissance, which makes the Palacio one of the most openly academic of the period. There is an unusual Corinthian pilaster order attached to the upper floor, and the main portal by Calle Egido, resolved in a semicircular arch with and a cast iron door. The rest of the composition remains within the scheme of the large intramural mansions, with the ground floor, mezzanine, and main floor, located, in this case, around three interior courtyards.[120]

Palacio de Aldama [ edit ]

The Palacio de Aldama is a neoclassical mansion located diagonally opposite to the old Plaza del Vapor (Parque del Curita), and in front of the old Campo de Marte; present day Parque de la Fraternidad, in Havana, Cuba. Built in 1840 by the Dominican architect and engineer Manuel José Carrera, its main facade of columns spans one block on Calle Amistad between Calles Reina and Estrella.

Palace stair

Palacio de Aldama, south east corner. Havana, Cuba.

The Aldama Palace was assaulted by Spanish volunteers on the night of the January 24, 1869. Its owner at that time, Don Miguel de Aldama and Alfonso – son of the building’s builder – was a recognized enemy of Spain and conspirator since Narciso López’s time.[121][j] A man so rich and powerful that, despite his ideas and pro Cuban views, Spain, far from punishing him, wanted to attract him with the offer of the title of marquis; Don Miguel refused. In addition, there was another reason that prompted the most intransigent Spanish element, represented by the volunteers, to the looting of that mansion and was the insistent rumor that, by the will of its owner, that royal palace would be the residence of the future presidents of Cuba.[123]

Thus, the Spanish Volunteer Corps assaulted the palace under the pretext that Domingo del Monte had a catch of weapons inside of the Palacio. The looting of the Aldama Palace, three months after the start of the first war for independence, is linked to various events that took place under the command of Captain General Domingo Dulce y Garay, Marquis of Castell-Florit, whose main cause was the encounter between the Spaniards and the Cubans and the hostility that the volunteers felt for the ruler whom they held as weak, and whom they accused of complicity in events contrary to Spain, including, those of Miguel Aldama.[123] Street riots had occurred on January 12 after the volunteers during a search had found a stash of weapons in a house on Calle Carmen during the burial of Camilo Cepeda, a young Cuban killed in jail. The Volunteers returned on the 24th and a troop of them fired their weapons into the ‘’El Louvre’’ cafe, those who tried to flee, were attacked by bayonet. There were seven dead and numerous wounded, all of them Spanish.[123]

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The Third and Fifth battalions, and the Ligeros battalion, concentrated before the Palace and knocked down one of the doors. They said to look for weapons and, indeed, they found them, but not of those that could be used in the manigua in the war against Spain, it was a collection of ancient weapons ——Japanese, Hindu, Norman, Inca, etc.—— that the Aldama family had collected. The Spanish Volunteers destroyed the art gallery and searched the cabinets and appropriated everything that could be taken, what could not be carried, they destroyed: crockery, lamps, crystals, books, art objects of all kinds. They set fire to the damask or lace curtains and doors and windows were torn off of the masonry, or shot. They also visited the wineries of the Palace, lit a bonfire in the Field of Mars and had the carved furniture and oriental tapestries burned.[123]

Royal Palm Hotel [ edit ]

Royal Palm Hotel (Havana), entrance. ca. 1930

The Royal Palm Hotel is located on the corner of San Rafael and Industria. It was inaugurated as “Edificio Luis. E. del Valle”, in honor of the sugar magnate who owned the building. However, it was soon sold to Canadian Wilbur E. Todgham, who turned it into the famed Royal Palm Hotel.[124] A characteristic that placed the Royal Palm among the favorites of its time was that almost all the rooms had a private bathroom with hot running water. The building had two elevators and a fire-protected staircase. In the 1930s, the hotel was bought by Pascual Morán Pérez, a businessman of Spanish origin who stood out in the field of hospitality in Cuba. Morán was a very skilled man in marketing matters and knew how to take advantage of the brand built by the previous owner to position himself in the market. He marketed his hotel as the best and most central in the city.[124] n the 1960s this hotel was nationalized, like many other properties in the city. There is no exact reference to how and when, but the building gradually became family homes. The practice of expropriating hotels and converting them into multi-family buildings was one of the strategies of the revolutionary state to solve the housing problem in Cuba.[124]

The commercial function of the ground floor has been preserved to date, taking advantage of its excellent location on Boulevard de San Rafael. Taking into account the architectural values of this building and its socio-cultural importance within the urban landscape in which it is located, the building received a major restoration in 2000, with the support of the Provincial Council of Seville, Spain.[124]

Art deco [ edit ]

The Bacardi Building [ edit ]

Edificio Bacardí

Bacardi Building, Ground Floor Plan

The Bacardi Building (Edificio Bacardí) is Havana landmark designed by the architects Esteban Rodríguez-Castells and Rafael Fernández Ruenes and completed in 1930.[125] It is located on the corner of Calles Monserrate and San Juan de Dios on a 1,320 sq meter lot in Las Murallas, Old Havana. The building is in the art deco style that was popular internationally in the early decades of the 20th century.

The Bacardi Building was designed to be the headquarters for the Bacardi Rum Company; it was nationalized by the Castro government in the early 1960s. In 2001, the building was restored by an Italian construction firm. The interior retains the original decorations in marble and granite. It is regarded as one of the finest Art Deco buildings in Latin America.[126]

The building was the outcome of an architectural design competition. The owners of the Bacardi company invited a number of architects to present their design proposals for a new headquarters building offering 1,000 pesos to the winner. The competition was made up of a panel of judges that included Henri Schueg Chassin, president of Bacardi, and the architects Leonardo Morales y Pedroso, the architect for Colegio Belen, Enrique Gil, Emilio de Soto, and Pedro Martínez Inclán. The first prize was awarded to architects Esteban Rodríguez-Castells and Rafael Fernández Ruenes. José Menéndez Menéndez was the architect-engineer in the project.[127] Construction of the building started on January 6, 1930, and was completed by the 300-day deadline the company had set for December. Poor conditions of the land required that the foundation use piles of hardwood (jiqui and júcaro negro) and high strength concrete. At the peak of the building (47m) is a bronze sculpture of the company logo, a fruit bat. Its design gives the building a unique chromatic effect and a decorative element of Catalan modernism. At the brim of the building are inflected flat panel sculptures of sirens.

Bacardi Building, first floor

The first floor contained a bar with column archways where patrons of the restaurant in the mezzanine area could overlook the bar while they dined. It was open to the public and known to have many celebrities who frequented. Most of the marble and granite were imported from Europe: Germany, Sweden, Norway, Italy, France, Belgium and Hungary.

With an area of 1,075 sq. meters and 7.25 meters of support, the first floor walls, floor, and ceiling are adorned in pink granite from Bavaria, and the two halls are of green marble from floor to ceiling. The construction work was carried out by the company Grasyma of Wansiedel, Bavaria of Germany, which took great care in the fine details of the work and the time sensitivity of the project deadline.

The property has a cistern with capacity for 8,700 US gallons (33,000 l; 7,200 imp gal) of water, which pumped into a tank inside the tower with capacity for 4,800 US gallons (18,000 l; 4,000 imp gal). In addition, it has four elevators for different uses: two are used for passengers with a capacity of 10 people each and a speed of 350 feet per minute; another is a cargo elevator for the transportation of furniture, with a capacity of 4,000 pounds (1,800 kg); and the fourth one makes trips between the basement and the first floor to transport goods.

Construction was completed in December 1930 and at the time it was the tallest building in Havana.[128]

López Serrano Building [ edit ]

Designed by the architect Ricardo Mira in 1929, who in 1941 designed La Moderna Poesia bookstore on Obispo Street for the same owner, the López Serrano Building was the tallest residential building in Cuba until the construction of the FOCSA Building in 1956. The congressman, senator, and presidential candidate Eduardo Chibás was living on the fourteenth-floor penthouse when he committed suicide in August 1951 on the air at CMQ Radio Station.

Lobby terrazzo floor

The construction of the building was promoted by José Antonio López Serrano, a publisher who ran La Moderna Poesía. He was the son of Ana Luísa Serrano and José López Rodríguez, “Pote”, a banker with ties to publishing.[129]

Pote arrived in Cuba as a poor and illiterate teenager who became an influential banker with ties to the government. In 1890 Pote married Ana Luísa Serrano, a wealthy widow who owned one of the best bookstores in Havana, La Moderna Poesía. After the marriage, Pote took charge of the business opening several branches in other locations in Cuba. José López’s fortune was due not only to his advantageous marriage to Ana Luísa but also from supporting the Cuban independence cause. Relations with the main Cuban leaders would bring important economic benefits. Among these political alliances was the figure of General José Miguel Gómez, whom Pote financed the 1907 electoral campaign that would propel Gómez to the Presidency of the Republic. In 1908 Pote got an exclusive contract to print the tickets of the National Lottery, which translated into extensive financial benefits. He monopolized the printing of official documents such as bonds, stocks, stamps and bank notes, printed in La Casa del Timbre.[128] Later, he would obtain from the Government of Gómez the concession for the construction of an iron bridge over the Almendares River connecting Calle Calzada with Miramar.[130] José López Rodríguez committed suicide on March 28, 1921, at the time, he had accumulated 93 million dollars.[131]

Modernism [ edit ]

Known by buildings of high-quality, modernist architecture transformed much of the city. Examples are the Havana Hilton Hotel of (1958), the Radiocentro CMQ Building of 1955 by Martín Domínguez Esteban architect of the FOCSA Building in 1956, and the Edificio del Seguro Médico, Havana by Antonio Quintana Simonetti.

Hotel Tryp Habana Libre [ edit ]

Hotel Habana Libre situado en la esquina más céntrica del Vedado

Hotel Tryp Habana Libre is one of the larger hotels in Cuba, situated in Vedado, Havana. The hotel has 572 rooms[132] in a 25-floor tower at Calle 23 (“La Rampa”) and Calle L. Opened in 1958 as the Habana Hilton, the hotel famously served as the residence of Fidel Castro and other revolutionaries throughout 1959, after their capture of Havana.

The Habana Hilton was constructed at a cost of $24 million, under the personal auspices of President Fulgencio Batista. It was built as an investment by the Caja de Retiro y Asistencia Social de los Trabajadores Gastronomicos,[133] the pension plan of the Cuban catering workers’ union, with additional financing from the Banco de Fomento Agricola e Industrial de Cuba (BANFAIC). It was operated by the American Hilton Hotels International group and was designed by the well-known Los Angeles architect Welton Becket, who had previously designed the Beverly Hilton for the chain. Becket designed the 27-story Habana Hilton in collaboration with Havana-based architects Lin Arroyo[134] and Gabriela Menéndez.[135] Arroyo was the Minister of Public Works under Batista.[136] The hotel was constructed by the Frederick Snare Corporation.[137]

The architectural historian Peter Moruzzi, author of Havana Before Castro, notes what the Hilton meant to Batista:

“Batista considered the Habana Hilton among his proudest achievements, its huge blue-lit rooftop ‘Hilton’ name announcing to the world that the eminent Conrad Hilton had confidence in Cuba’s future – that the country was a safe place in which to invest – and that tourists could now find in Havana the modern comforts they expected in a top international resort.”[138]

The Habana Hilton was Latin America’s tallest and largest hotel. It boasted 630 guest rooms, including 42 suites; an elegant casino; six restaurants and bars, including a Trader Vic’s and a rooftop bar; a huge supper club; extensive convention facilities; a shopping arcade; an outdoor pool surrounded by cabanas; and two underground garages with a capacity of 500 cars. The hotel also featured artwork commissioned from some of the most important Cuban modern artists of the day, including an enormous mosaic mural by Amelia Peláez over the main entrance and a tiled wall mural by René Portocarrero in the second-floor Antilles Bar overlooking the pool terrace.

The Habana Hilton opened with five days of festivities, from March 19–23, 1958,[139] with Conrad Hilton himself in attendance, joined by his companion, actress Ann Miller.[140] Hilton was joined by 300 invited guests, including socialite Virginia Warren, daughter of Chief Justice Earl Warren;[141] renowned Hollywood columnist Hedda Hopper; actress Terry Moore;[142] actress Dorothy Johnson; married radio hosts Tex McCrary and Jinx Falkenburg; actress Linda Cristal; dancer Vera-Ellen; actor Don Murray; actress Dolores Hart; ABC network President Leonard Goldenson; and journalist Leonard Lyons.[140] A formal blessing ceremony was held in the hotel’s lobby on March 22, 1958, attended by Cuba’s First Lady, Marta Fernandez de Batista; Francisco Aguirre, head of the catering workers’ union; José Suárez Rivas, Minister of Labor; and other dignitaries. The ceremony was followed by a luncheon, with speeches by Hilton and Aguirre, and a huge gala dinner and ball in the hotel’s grand ballroom.[143]

The casino in the hotel was leased for $1 million a year to a group consisting of Roberto “Chiri” Mendoza, his brother Mario Mendoza, Clifford “Big Juice” Jones, Kenneth F. Johnson, and Sidney Orseck. Roberto Mendoza was a wealthy Cuban contractor and sugar planter who was a business associate of President Batista; Mario Mendoza was a lawyer; Orseck was an attorney from New York; Johnson was a senator in the Nevada state legislature and Jones was a former lieutenant governor of Nevada who had ownership interests in a number of Las Vegas casinos. Hilton officials said that 13 groups tried to lease the casino and 12 were “turned down because they either had underworld connections or had refused to subject themselves to rigid investigation.” Speculation surfaced that the murder of Gambino crime family boss Albert Anastasia in October 1957 was tied to his interest in securing an ownership stake in the Hilton’s casino. Roberto Mendoza and Santo Trafficante Jr., who had substantial gambling interests in Cuba, were both in New York at the time of Anastasia’s murder. The police investigation of the murder focused on this theory for a while but later looked at other theories. The murder was never solved.[144][145][146]

Radiocentro CMQ Building [ edit ]

The Radiocentro CMQ Building complex is a former radio and television production facility and office building at the intersection of Calle L and La Rampa in El Vedado, Cuba. It was modeled after Raymond Hood’s 1933 Rockefeller Center in New York City.[147] With 1,650 seats, the theater first opened on December 23, 1947, under the name Teatro Warner Radiocentro, it was owned by brothers Goar and Abel Mestre. Today the building serves as the headquarters of the Cuban Institute of Radio and Television (ICRT).

Building characteristics advertisement. ca 1948

For the construction of this building, the Havana building authorities granted a permit in 1947 amending the ordinances that were then in effect in El Vedado prohibiting the construction of buildings of more than three storeys. This statute was modified six years later to expand the construction of up to four floors because many planners and owners claimed the need to authorize them to build taller buildings in the area.[148]

The building was set back from the property line five meters, adding four meters for an arcade which allowed a distance from the road while adjusting to the strong slope of 23rd Street, in this way the arcade became a wide gallery and at the same time sub-divided the basement level.

This gallery became the covered hall of the cinema located in the upper corner with Calle L. The building had an expressionist curved cover of a large scale relating to the important intersection. This same scale was adopted in the restaurant that was located on the opposite corner on M. Street. The wide gallery gives access to the lobby of the office building. The third building is set up by a prismatic piece on M Street, also set back to emphasize the two corners.

Edificio Radiocentro CMQ. Television studios entrance on Calle M.

The cinema with a capacity for 1,700 spectators was originally a Cinerama which used three projectors and a twenty-five-foot radius screen. It had a small stage in which short-term shows could be offered, in order to entertain the audience in the middle of the films.

The radio station CMQ occupied part of the offices of the ten-story building, which was attached to the block of rental offices. In this area, a part of the land had also been reserved for future television installations, which had not yet been built. In one of its studios, Studio Number 2 was the venue not only of radio program transmissions but also that studio was the location of all or most of the RCA Victor recordings in Cuba from 1948 to 1959. The label at the CMQ complex was Discuba, a Cuban record label founded in 1959 by RCA Victor. It released music by several internationally successful artists such as Celia Cruz, Beny Moré, Orquesta Aragón and La Lupe.

The ground floor, which was common for the entire complex, had different types of commercial establishments: several exhibition halls, a bank, a restaurant, and a cafeteria. The pedestrian circulation was designed in such a way so that it made it necessary to pass in front of these premises.[149]

Cinerama using three projectors and curved screen.

The Radiocentro CMQ Building of 1947, built on 23rd Street between Calles L and M in El Vedado, was the first mixed use building in Cuba. The architectural program of the building included businesses, offices, radio, and television studios, as well as the Cinerama Warner cinema. This project joined the expertise of the structural engineers, the U.S. firm Purdy and Henderson, Engineers, and the architects Martín Domínguez Esteban[150] and Miguel Gastón and Emilio del Junco, all members of the ATEC (Cuban section of the CIAM).[148] The building had a great impact since it was published in the magazine L’Architecture d’aujourd’hui.[151]

The building is a series of independent boxes, it was designed by the Basque architect Martín Domínguez Esteban (1897–1970).[152] Esteban had been the architect of the Hipódromo de la Zarzuela, along with Carlos Arniches. The CMQ Building was loosely modeled after Raymond Hood’s Rockefeller Center.[153] The Radiocentro CMQ Building had an impact on many Cuban architects who subscribed to Modern architecture and buildings that would be built in the following years, such as the Hotel Habana Hilton across La Rampa (now known as Hotel Habana Libre) designed by Welton Becket and associates with the Cuban architectural firm of Arroyo and Menéndez, the1958, the twenty-three story Edificio Seguro Medico by Antonio Quintana, among others.

Walter Gropius, during a visit he made in 1949 to Havana referred to the Radiocentro CMQ Building to defend the need for architectural teamwork and collaboration among architects: It is impossible for the architect to know all of the equipment and installation requirements; therefor, it is necessary for the cooperation of architectural specialists.[154]

The FOCSA Building [ edit ]

Aerial view he FOCSA Building seen from the west showing the floating corridors, circa 1958.

FOCSA Building Typical Floor Plan

The FOCSA Building is a residential block in the Vedado neighborhood of Havana, Cuba. It was named after the contracting company Fomento de Obras y Construcciones, Sociedad Anónima, and the architects were Ernesto Gómez Sampera (1921–2004), Mercedes Diaz (his wife), and Martín Domínguez Esteban (1897–1970), who was the architect of the Radiocentro CMQ Building. The structural engineer was Luis Sáenz Duplace, of the firm Sáenz, Cancio & Martín, and professor of engineering at the University of Havana. The civil engineers were Bartolome Bestard and Manuel Padron. Gustavo Becquer and Fernando H.Meneses were the mechanical and electrical engineers, respectively.[155][156] It is located on a site bordered by Calles 17 and M and Calles 19 and N in the Vedado.[156] [155] The Edificio Focsa (1956) represents Havana’s economic dominance at the time. This 35-story complex was conceived and based on Corbusian ideas of a self-contained city within a city. It contained 400 apartments, garages, a school, a supermarket, and a restaurant on the top floor. This was the tallest high-strength concrete structure in the world at the time (using no steel frame) and the ultimate symbol of luxury and excess.

The building rises to a height of 402′ above its footings; 11″ bearing walls separate the apartments and in turn support the 6-3/4″ reinforced concrete slabs at each level. The bearing walls are solid and have no openings except at the basement and lobby floors to facilitate access between rooms.[155] There is an additional concrete mass at the center of the Y, (apartments F and G), to increase resistance to lateral forces. The walls extend through the rear wall to support the corridors. The wall and slab structural system form a three-dimensional lattice resisting horizontal forces. A high strength concrete mix from 3,000 to 7,000 psi. was used.[155] The tower and corridors show prefabricated panels on the exterior. Reinforced concrete columns support the podium and the stories below. The residential block, the ‘Y,’ is supported by 13 11-inch walls.[156] There are coral tiles on the ground floor.[112][k]

The building was chosen in February 1997 by the Unión Nacional de Arquitectos e Ingenieros de la Construcción de Cuba (UNAICC) as one of the seven wonders of Cuban civil engineering.[157] The FOCSA has 39 floors 4 of which are dedicated to commercial use, two floors are for parking. Twenty-eight floors have 13 residences each. The 34th floor has six penthouses on a plinth made possible by the structural walls which stop below this floor. Each penthouse is the size of two apartments (A+B, C+D, E+F, etc.). The penthouses have a dedicated elevator and patio-courtyards open to the sky. All apartment floors are terrazzo on cinders.[155]

The site of the FOCSA may be divided into three parts:

A shallow, mixed-use “wall and slab” Y of 35 floors above a base. The podium of outdoor amenities including two swimming pools and a club for guests and tenants. The podium covers the entire site. Four floors of building services, commercial spaces, and parking for 500 cars located below the podium.[157][155]

Apartments are a one-half level up or down from the service and tenant corridors. A typical floor contains 13 apartments, five have two bedrooms and a maid’s room. The cost of the apartments was $21,500 for the larger units in the center and $17,500 for the smaller ones. It was stipulated that an additional $30 per each floor was charged the higher up in the building the unit was located, the highest apartments were the first to be sold.[156]

Located in the tower are the building’s four tenant and two service elevators and two sets of stairs. One of the service elevators is dedicated to the restaurant and the observation floor. The other service elevator is for the apartments and is linked to the service corridors. The tower also contains offices on the 37th floor for the restaurant, “La Torre,” on the 38th floor and an observation room on the 39th floor.[157]

The podium contains a clubhouse, and offices and swimming pools for adults and children. It has gardens, lighted paths, and benches. There is a ramp to the street located at the corner of 19th and M, the podium was used as a staging area during the construction of the project.[157] Below the podium at the fourth level are building offices.[155]

Edificio del Seguro Médico [ edit ]

The Edificio del Seguro Médico is a commercial building in El Vedado, Havana.[158] Built between 1955 and 1958, it was designed as a mixed use building for apartments and offices for the headquarters of the National Medical Insurance Company by Antonio Quintana Simonetti.

In regards to Edificio del Seguro Médico an architect from the Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba, Carlos Alberto Odio Soto made the following observation:

“Within the modern heritage architecture of the 50s, there is the Medical Insurance Building, work designed by the architect Antonio Quintana in 1955. This work was praised even before its inauguration by the prestigious Professor Pedro Martínez Inclán on the occasion of the delivery of the First Prize to the Project where he proposed that Quintana, when he managed to carry out his project, could blazon of having endowed Havana, according to the famous sentence of Paul Valery, “of a building that speaks.” At the national level, Quintana received the recognition of the main specialized publications that circulated in the country at that time: Architecture, Space, Cuba Album, etc .; at the same time is diffused internationally through the book Latin American Architecture since 1945, published by the Museum of Modern Art in New York, and the Exhibition of Modern Cuban Architecture held in the city itself by the Architectural League of New York. Almost at the end of the 50s, he receives two distinctions: in 1959 the Gold Medal Award of the National College of Architects and the condition of best commercial work of this period.”[159]

Today the building houses the Cuban Ministry of Public Health and the Prensa Latina Agency.[160] The only complete package of information about the building is the slides that were presented for the architectural contest, collected in the magazine ‘Arquitectura’, nº 269, of 1955 published by the College of Architects of Havana.[161]

Visual arts [ edit ]

The Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes de La Habana is a Fine Arts museum that exhibits Cuban and international art. The museum houses one of the largest collections of paintings and sculpture from Latin America and is the largest in the Caribbean region.[162] Under the Cuban Ministry of Culture, it occupies two locations in the vicinity of Havana’s Paseo del Prado, these are the Palace of Fine Arts, devoted to Cuban art and the Palace of the Asturian Center, dedicated to universal art.[163] Its artistic heritage is made up of over 45,000 pieces.[164] Since 1995 the capital hosts the headquarters of the Ludwig Foundation of Cuba in Vedado, founded by the German collectors Peter and Irene Ludwig, it is a non-governmental and non-profit organization for the dissemination and protection of Cuban art.

Federico Beltrán Masses [ edit ]

Federico Beltran Masses in 1914

Federico Beltran Masses (September 8, 1885 – October 4, 1949) was a Spanish painter born in Cuba; the only child of Luis Beltran Fernandez Estepona, a former Spanish army officer stationed in Cuba, and Dona Mercedes Masses Olives, the daughter of a doctor from Lleida, Catalonia, who himself had married the daughter of a wealthy Spanish Cuban-landowner. He spent his youth in Barcelona, where he began his artistic training in the well-regarded Escola de la Llotja. He later moved to Madrid, where he received more training under Joaquín Sorolla. He married Irene Narezo Dragoné, a painter as well, of a distinguished family and good economic position. They moved to Paris in 1916 to further Masses’ career and settled there until 1946, after which he moved to Barcelona in 1946 and later died in 1949.[165][166] Beltran Masses was renowned as a master of colour and the psychological portrait, as well as a painter of seductive images of women. Born in Cuba, where his mother’s family had lived for nearly two centuries, his family returned to Spain to live in Barcelona, when he was seven years old – the painter’s Spanish heritage would influence his oeuvre deeply while he sometimes referenced the tropical exoticism of Cuba in the settings for some of his subjects. His paintings are rich with musical and poetic references influenced by ‘Greek mythology, orphic mysteries and fantasies of Asia, where we are led by Gustave Moreau’ remarked Louis Vauxcelles.[167]

connection to the world of music and dance [ edit ]

A guitar featured recurrently in many of his subject paintings, while his interest in contemporary dance[168] led to his design of the scenery and gypsy costume for a 1929 performance by then celebrated dancer Antonia Mercé “La Argentina”[169] (whose portrait he painted).

Painting done in 1929 for the artist’s London exhibition, oil on canvas

An early fascination with Symbolism and ‘the Ancients’ manifest in paintings such as Lackmy and Canción de Bilitis, while his dark paintings of eroticised women, languorously posed in fantastical nocturnal settings set him apart from contemporary artistic trends. His 1915 portrait of a Spanish countess, naked but for a white mantilla, seated between two fully clothed companions (La Maja Marquesa), was publicly denounced and had to be retitled. This inspired Beltrán’s move to Paris, where he spent most of the next thirty years. Before his departure a solo exhibition of his work in Madrid in 1916 received the accolade of a visit from the Spanish King, Alfonso XIII;[170] this was followed by further successes at the XII Venice Biennale of 1920, where an entire pavilion was dedicated to his work, and several large-scale exhibitions in Paris, New York, Palm Beach and London received enthusiastic reviews.

Such was his fame that in 1926 Martha Graham[171] titled a dance at her first public performance in New York Portrait – Beltran Masses; in 1929 the temporary removal from a London exhibition of two particularly explicit paintings led to denunciations of censorship but insured an attendance of over 17,000 paying visitors in just three weeks. Beltran Masses’ portrait subjects included kings and princes, Hollywood stars, and leaders of high society on both sides of the Atlantic, while he was particularly sought out by women who had unashamedly rejected convention and whose lives had some

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